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Issue: #7 July 2008
Dear Exercise Physiologists,

Thank you for being part of our community. ASEP is the specific voice for (historically under-represented) Exercise Physiologists. Please use this Newsletter as a link to ASEP resources from scientific journals to professional papers, to employment and related opportunities. And be sure to click on "More On Us" at the left for the ASEP-newsletter's parent web site!
-Lonnie Lowery, ASEP-Newsletter Editor 
 Editor's Corner

editorialASEP Online Journal Offerings - A Double-duty Resource 
I would like to take the opportunity to draw your attention to Professionalization of Exercise Physiology online (PEP-online) and the Journal of Exercise Physiology online (JEP-online). You can find links in left column of this Newsletter.
The periodicals offer 1.) High-quality, peer reviewed research that is so fundamental to our well-established body of literature and 2.) Facts and opinions from Tommy Boone and other Exercise Physiologists regarding the professional state of Exercise Physiology.
Both aspects are important to an organization but don't always get equal treatment. I am not alone in having seen differences in focus between exercise science / exercise physiology groups (generally a research focus) and other groups, such as dietetics (perhaps more of a professional focus). Interestingly, this has created a scenario whereby exercise physiologists have built a comparitively impressive research history but are under-developed regarding standardized policies, procedures, testing protocols, professional ethics, unified marketing messages, etc. 
Did you know that exercise professionals, although grossly underpaid on average compared to other educated health workers, are part of a field that has much higher than average growth in the U.S. economy? Type in various health-related disciplines on the U.S. Department of Labor website ( and look around. You may find it interesting that the growth rate for fitness and wellness is faster than some others. Thus you may find it unsurprising that other health disciplines are interested in incorporating exercise physiology into their (slower-growing) scopes of practice. Do you feel that this is best? Or should we create awareness that our body of knowldege gives us a right to referrals from those other groups?
If you feel that Exercise Physiology needs a voice and discussions on guidance as a profession, be sure to not only check out JEP-online for research but also PEP-online for ideas and facts on where EPs fit in to the existing health marketplace. The combination of scientific and career-related information, freely offered online, makes ASEP a unique and strong resource for EPs everywhere.
Yours in health,
Lonnie Lowery, PhD
ASEP Newsletter Editor
Ask the EP
Q.) I'm a graduate student studying exercise physiology and have an interest in muscle fibers, can you give a more specific description and analysis of skeletal muscle fiber types? 

A.) Human Skeletal muscles have the unique ability to respond to a variety of functional tasks. These tasks stem from the complex interaction of nervous system control and structured assembly of different muscle fiber types. Although variation exists between molecular, metabolic and contractile properties, they can be classified depending on specific characteristics (Malisoux 2007). It is important to keep in mind the possible overlap of skeletal muscle fiber type categories. Hence, many fiber types share characteristics with other fiber types, which could lead to discrepancies in the grouping of fibers. 

Muscle fiber types can be identified according to biochemical staining properties on the myosin ATPase enzyme located in the globular region of the myosin head, specifically, the myosin S-1 units. Therefore, the major types can be identified; type 1, IIa, and IIb, and more recently type IIx. However, in humans, it may turn out that there is no IIb, just IIx, and the traditional approaches have, in the past, mistaken IIx for IIb. (Brooks/Fahey 2005).
The functionality of these fiber types are due to, in part, of enzyme speed activity. Meaning, there is a continuum from type 1 (slowest) to type II x (fastest) (Fry 2004). The equation below depicts the transition.

 I< >IC < >II C < > IIAC < > IIA < >IIAB < >IIB < >IIX
 (Fry 2004)
where < > = continuum

To fully understand fiber type classification, one must have intimate knowledge of the motor unit activation. A motor unit is a single alpha motor neurons and all the muscle fibers it innervates. Interestingly enough, the muscle fibers in a motor unit are not all located adjacent to one another, but are spread out in the muscle called microbundles, consisting of 3 to 15 fibers. Thus adjacent muscle fibers are not necessarily from the same motor unit, but are dispersed. Neurons innervating type I fibers are normally recruited first in a muscle action followed by neurons innervating type II ( type II A, IIB, IIX). However, if more force is required, type II fiber will be recruited first. As previous mentioned, there is some overlap between the first and last fibers recruited for a specific task. (Kramer, Fleck 2003).
Depending on the speed of enzyme activity, different fibers possess different properties. Slow twitch oxidative fibers have a small diameter, slow contracting speed, low glycolytic capacities, but high an affinity for capillary and mitochondria work. Slow twitch fibers are used for activities requiring little energy demand, or used for longer duration low intensity exercise bouts (Malisoux 2007). Although elite endurance athletes typically have a higher proportion of type I fibers, compared to recreational runners or untrained individuals, not all highly trained endurance athletes have a higher percentage of type I fibers. For a more thorough understanding, the reader is referred the study by Kohn and colleagues (2007).

Type IIA fibers, also called, fast oxidative glycolytic fibers (FOG) have a higher affinity for ATPase activity and contain a higher mitochondria content making them more resistant to fatigue . From a training perspective, individuals who train for hypertrophy, as opposed to maximal force, speed or power typically have higher type I and type IIA fibers, compared with type IIB and type IIX.  D' Antona and colleagues (2006) and Fry (2004) suggest that bodybuilders are a good example of this population. However, in the study by Antona, some bodybuilders had taken or were taking anabolic steroids, which could significantly affect fiber type composition, either from steroids alone or in combination with training.

Type IIx fibers exhibit the fast rate of contraction, and are very large in diameter, have low oxidative capacities and low mitochondria, but contain the highest glycolytic content. These fibers are recruited for heavy resistance training protocols with maximal or near maximal loads, in addition to other activities or sports requiring a fast rate of contraction such as sprinting, olympic lifting, plyometric work (Malisoux 2007).

In closing, differences exits within fibers of the same muscle group as well as significant variation within and between genders. (Zierath JR 2004). For example in animal research, it is very easy to translate the findings to human studies, even though limited or inconclusive research may exist on the same topic. Therefore, due to many methodological and design differences, the individual needs to be skeptical when deciphering results of research with muscle fiber types.

1). D'Antona G, Lanfranconi F, Pellegrino MA, Brocca L, Adami R, Rossi R, Moro G, Miotti D, Canepari M, Bottinelli R. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres in male body builders.J Physiol. 2006 Feb 1;570(Pt 3):611-27.
2). Brooks, GA, Fahey, T. Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and its Applications. 5TH ed. McGraw Hill. New York, New York. 2005
3). Fry AC. The role of resistance exercise intensity on muscle fibre adaptations.
Sports Med. 2004;34(10):663-79. Review.
4). Kohn TA, Essen-Gustavsson B, Myburgh KH. Do skeletal muscle phenotypic characteristics of Xhosa and Caucasian endurance runners differ when matched for training and racing distances? J Appl Physiol. 2007 Sep;103(3):932-40.
5). Fleck, S.J., Kraemer W.J., (2003). Designing Resistance Training Programs. Canada: Transcontinental Printing
6). Malisoux L, Francaux M, Theisen D. What do single-fiber studies tell us about exercise training? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Jul;39(7):1051-60. Review
7). Zierath JR, Hawley JA. Skeletal muscle fiber type: influence on contractile and metabolic properties. PLoS Biol. 2004 Oct;2(10):e348. Epub 2004 Oct 12. Review
~Jonathan Mike MS, CSCS, NSCA-CPT

Opportunities Related to Exercise Physiology
Hebrew SeniorLife has an opening for a Health & Fitness Specialist. This is a part time 24-hour position (could possibly become full time 40-hour....more information...
The Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Wellness Departments of Frankford Hospitals are looking for two (2) Pool Clinical Exercise Physiologists to join their professional team with a great opportunity to work with both an inpatient and outpatient setting...more information...


is a fast-paced, dynamic, medical device company, driving a new technology to standard of care via creative people and an energetic leadership team. Ideal candidates for the CLINICAL APPLICATION SPECIALIST position in the Northern or Central NJ or NYC area will possess a BSN or Masters Degree in Exercise Physiology plus a minimum of 2 years of work experience...more information...


is a fast-paced, dynamic, medical device company, driving a new technology to standard of care via creative people and an energetic leadership team. Ideal candidates for the CLINICAL APPLICATION SPECIALIST position in the San Francisco Bay area will possess a BSN or Masters Degree in Exercise Physiology plus a minimum of 2 years of work experience...more information...

PrimeWest Health System

is hiring a Wellness Quality Coordinator/Exercise Physiologist to assist in all aspects of wellness and health promotion program development and implementation...more information...

PrimeWest Health System

is seeking exercise physiologists to provide services for a new benefit program called PrimeFitness...more information...
Professor in Exercise Physiology

Southern Methodist University
Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education & Human Development, Department of Wellness (Open Rank)

Southern Methodist University offers an exciting unique opportunity for an emerging or seasoned scholar to join in the design and implementation of a new major in Sport and Fitness Management and Promotion while developing his/her program of research.

Candidates must have a Ph.D. in Exercise Physiology; a record of scholarly research; evidence of success in or strong potential for obtaining external funding; an interest and expertise in designing, equipping, and managing a new physiology of exercise laboratory; a desire to provide high quality undergraduate instruction; and a willingness to play an integral role in the growth, development, and identity of the new major program scheduled to begin in the fall semester of 2009. Preference will be given to applicants with successful post-doctoral experience; a clear research agenda; a strategy for seeking external funding; a secondary expertise in Biomechanics; an ability to work with faculty colleagues; and a commitment to teaching.

Responsibilities: The successful candidate will have a year to develop course proposals in exercise physiology, nutrition, measurement and evaluation; aerobic prescriptions leading to certifications; strength prescriptions leading to certifications; and other courses deemed appropriate in the planning of the new undergraduate major curriculum. The candidate will also be responsible for establishing a physiology of exercise laboratory planned for a new education and human development facility to open in 2010. The candidate should have outstanding interpersonal and communication skills that promote strong research and training collaborations in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex.

This tenure or tenure-track position (# 53014) begins fall semester 2008. Salary is competitive and salary and rank will be commensurate with qualifications. To ensure full consideration for the position, applicants should submit their application by May 1, 2008, but the committee will continue to accept applications until the position is filled. The committee will notify applicants of its employment decision after the position is filled.

Applicants can initiate consideration by submitting a letter of application, a curriculum vitae, and contact information for three references to: Chair of Search Committee, School of Education and Human Development, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750382, Dallas, Texas 75275-0382

SMU does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age, disability, or veteran status. SMU is committed to nondiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

Canyon Ranch: A World Renowned Health Resort needs Exercise Physiologists

Canyon Ranch, The Power of Possibilities, is a world-renowned health and healing resort that inspires educates and empowers both guests and staff members to live a higher quality of life. Canyon Ranch continues to lead the nation in innovative, preventive healthcare. Our recent alliance with the Cleveland Clinic has resulted in cutting edge health programs and lifestyle prescriptions for our guests.

We are currently seeking Exercise Physiologist(s) to join our word-renowned team. We currently have positions available at our Lenox, Massachusetts and Tucson, Arizona sites.

Requirements for this position include:

(1) At least two years of experience working as an Exercise Physiologist, preferably at a resort or health facility.
(2) Must possess Basic Cardiac Life Support certification.
(3) Must possess a Master's degree in Exercise Physiology.
(4) Dynamic and passionate relationship builder with excellent interpersonal skills.
(5) Ability to provide education and excitement about our programs to our guest and staff through lectures.

If you are passionate about making a difference in peoples' lives and giving them the vision to understand the "Power of Possibility" we would like to hear from you.

Canyon Ranch offers a comprehensive benefits package to include, competitive compensation, medical, dental and vision insurance, 401K, tuition assistance, full use of the facilities and more!

To apply please email your resume to:  - or send your resume to 165 Kemble Street, Lenox, MA 01240 or fax to 413-637-6908. Please indicate which property you are interested in pursuing.

Manager in the Weight Management Center
Open the door of opportunity.
Open the door to the best of both worlds: Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center offers a unique environment that combines the prestige and opportunities of a respected academic medical center with the personality and camaraderie of a community hospital.
We have an opening for a Manager, in our Weight Management Center, located at Greenspring Station in Lutherville, MD. Responsibilities include the oversight of patient weight management, a multidisciplinary team, regulatory compliance and budget.
·Bachelor's degree in allied health
·Minimum of 5 years previous experience including primary responsibility for a nutrition specialty area or managing a clinical education program
We offer our staff hands-on experience with the latest technology, a supportive work environment, and one of the best pay and benefits packages in the field, including a 403B with employer match and tuition reimbursement for you and your dependents.
With a rich history of healing and a world-famous reputation, Johns Hopkins Bayview can offer you an exciting, fulfilling career, wherever you are on your career path. Apply today at John Hopkins Bayview using Req. no. 80227
Cardio-Pulmonary Rehab Position
Montgomery General Hospital is a community oriented hospital located in the Olney, MD. We currently have an opening for an Exercise Physiologist in the Cardio-Pulmonary Rehab Program
This position is responsible for the assessment, direction and supervision of participants in the Cardio-Pulmonary Rehab Program. Identifies patient educational needs and provides education/resources to participant regarding disease process, prevention, discharge planning and health maintenance.
Qualification: MS in Exercise Physiology, CRP Certification, ACLS certification, ACSM Exercise specialist or Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist (RCEP) preferred. Three years clinical exercise physiology experience preferred.
Please check us out at Montgomery General Hospital and fill out an application online or contact Vivian Hsia at
Full-time Exercise Physiologist Positions
PhysioLogic Human Performance Systems, LLC. (PHPS) is accepting applications for (2) full-time, salaried Exercise Physiologist positions. Individuals selected will be dependable, swift, and organized.

This is professional work that is unique, stimulating, independent, and important to the daily operations of our client facilities. Daily travel is required by personal vehicle with travel expenses paid.

EPC Board Certification required. Applicants without EPC credential may apply on contingency of obtaining certification within negotiated time.

Salary and benefits will be commensurate of education level and experience. These positions are time sensitive so please send your resume to: as soon as possible.

PHPS will contact all applicants to answer questions and conduct interviews...


NOTE: ASEP Board of Directors with approval of The Center for Exercise Physiology-online developed the "EPC Petition Guidelines" for doctorate exercise physiologists to become Board Certified.
Exercise Physiologist

Exercise Physiologist (Staten Island) For residential & community based prgms, plan, coord. & implmt the dvlpmt of exercise & fitness prgms for individuals w/autism & dvlpmt'l disabilities. Establish cardiovascular health & wellness prgms. Perform health related fitness tests. Resp. for meeting exercise & physical activity reqmts prescribed for each individual. Bachelors in Physical Education & Masters in Health Sci. w/a specialization in Work (Exercise) Physiology. M-F, 9-5. Resume to: Ms. Barrafato, HR Director, On Your Mark Inc, 645 Forest Ave, Staten Island, NY 10301.

Exercise Physiologist, Cardiac Rehabilitation, Part Time, Days/Flex, 40 Hours Biweekly
As the premier healthcare facility in Bucks County, PA, and its most comprehensive, we offer more as a healthcare provider and as an employer. Expect to be challenged to new levels at our exceptional facilities, including the county's only state-accredited Trauma Center, an impressive Heart Center, a regional Cancer Center, a major orthopedics program and exceptional women's services. But also expect to find greater satisfaction with our friendly environment, great benefits and inspirational setting on a beautiful 53-acre campus.
Bucks County's premier medical facility can offer you a competitive compensation package, including competitive salaries with increased rates. Full benefits after 1st month of hire, including pension plan, 403B, free parking, tuition reimbursement and on-site childcare.
Responsible for providing monitored exercise therapy and patient education for the Comprehensive Cardiac Rehabilitation program, both inpatient and outpatient.
Our successful candidate must meet the following qualifications:
· Bachelor's degree & ACSM certification as Exercise Physiologist/Exercise Specialist required
· Experience a must
· Master's degree & ACLS would be assets
To apply, please visit or contact:
Kelly Shallcross
Nurse Recruiter
Phone: 215-710-2445
Fax: 215-710-5190

Thank you for perusing our opinions, facts and opportunities in this edition of the ASEP-Newsletter.

Lonnie Lowery
American Society of Exercise Physiologists

All contents are copyright 1997-2007 American Society of Exercise Physiologists.

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American Society of Exercise Physiologists | Dept. of Exercise Physiology | College of St. Scholastica | 1200 Kenwood Avenue | Duluth | MN | 55811