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journals to professional papers, to employment and related
opportunities. And be sure to click on "More On Us" at the left for the
ASEP-newsletter's parent web site.
-Lonnie Lowery and Jonathan Mike, ASEP-Newsletter Editors
|Exercise Physiology in High School|
term I am teaching an Exercise Physiology class to 21 high school
students. The students choose this class because it is part of the
Bio-Health Science pathway offered at our school. The prerequisite for
the class was either Anatomy & Physiology or Athletic Training 1 so
I knew the students would have a general knowledge of the human body.
The class is not required but many students felt it would help when
they attend college. Eighty percent of the class has played or is
playing a sport in high school so I use the students as examples. The
majority of the class is looking at the medical field (athletic
training, nursing or physical therapy) when they attend college. The
text book I am using is "Physiology of Sport and Exercise" Guide-4th
Edition by Jack Wilmore, David Costill, W. Larry Kenney.
From the response of the class thus far, I think
this is an area that is being overlooked by our high schools and needs
to be further explored. I set the class up so we would cover 7
chapters emphasizing the major concepts of each chapter, however we do
not go into the depth the text book allows us. My rational for this was
to introduce the concepts (i.e. three types of muscle, actin / myosin
and the sliding filament theory, program design / needs analysis,
adaptations to exercise, training for sports, nutrition and adolescents
in sports) and then apply the material to their sports. I feel that if
the students learn the basics they will have a better understanding
when they take the college class.
The true learning in this class has occurred outside the
classroom. Students in class are able to apply the basic concepts we
have covered in class to real life experiences. On several occasions I
have had a chance to interact with the students in the weight room so
we can talk about the topics we are learning in class. One of my
favorite happened after school in the weight room when a couple of the
athletes wanted to do 100's. That is 100 reps of an exercise. They feel
the burn and think that translates into hypertrophy. I asked one of my
exercise physiology why that was not a good idea. He as able to explain
that performing 20-30 reps at one time before they have to stop was
actually working type I fibers which are used in endurance events. If
the athletes wanted to get stronger they needed to be working type II
fibers which meant less reps and more weight. As he and I talked, I
would ask questions and he would tell his teammates the answers. At
first they chuckled until I explained that the student was correct and
if they listened to him they would improve their strength. This type of
interaction has occurred with other students as well. The students are
even talking to their coaches about training which shows me that they
understand the material.
Most high school offer an Anatomy and Physiology or
Athletic Training class to their students. By expanding the class
selection to include a basic Exercise Physiology or Kinesiology class
students would not only have more choices but they would be exposed to
a wider variety of sciences.
How many times have you heard that American students are over weight and behind in the sciences?
Maybe if we start to teach students the science of why they need to
exercise and how it affects the body (EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY) the trend
will start to change.
I know Forensics has made a push to get into the high
schools and more schools have started offering it. As the leaders in
Exercise Physiology I feel that if you would show teachers the benefits
of the class and how exciting can be, more high schools would choose to
include it in their curriculum.
Patrick McHenry MA, CSCS*D
|Ask the EP
| Q: What encompasses Resting Metabolic Rate and what factor influence this measurement?
Metabolic Rate (RMR) is a measure of basic biologic energy needs and is
commonly used to predict daily energy requirements of individuals and
populations in both research and clinical settings (1). The RMR in a
normal active healthy person accounts for 60-75% of total energy
expenditure (TEE), and potential more in a very sedentary person. An
intervention that greatly alters RMR may have a profound effect of
energy balance. An increase in RMR to different exercise modes possibly
assists in overcoming the low energy expenditure accustomed with
obesity (2). In order to quantify the amount of difference in RMR
observed with exercise involvement, it is important to identify natural
variation that occurs with an individual from day to day without
Knowledge of resting metabolic rate (RMR) is
important in clinical applications for defining appropriate nutritional
support and determining caloric needs for energy balance and weight
management (3). In order for RMR to be useful, individuals need to be
confident in the accuracy of the measurement and knowledge of the
variability of repeated measures. There are a wide range of indirect
calorimetry systems including whole room calorimeters, doubled labeled
water, open circuit Douglas bags, metabolic carts, ventilated hood
systems, and hand-held devices- have been published (1,4,5,6). Many
factors- including anxiety, diurnal variation, thermic effect of food,
elevated EPOC, stimulants, and pharmaceuticals, can affect measures of
metabolic rate ( 7). Due to these factors, methodological variability,
and individual variation, it is important to attempt to define
conditions under which a measurement can be considered an RMR.
Therefore, standard conditions have been developed. These are generally
defined as an 8-12 fast and a 12 hour abstinence of exercise (1,7).
has been research conducted to determine individual day to day
variability in RMR. One study in 19 healthy participants established
that after 3 measurements completed over 6 weeks, average variation was
3.3% +/- 2.1% (8). Similarly, in a study with older people, 6 men and
13 women were measured on 3 separate occasions, with average variations
of 4% for men and 3% for women, suggesting older people have a lower
variation to that of younger people (9). However, there seems to be a
range of variation of RMR ranging from 2-10%, sited from Haugen (7),and
5-14% sited from Roffey (1).
When testing RMR, it is
recommended to use the standard condition of an 8-12 hour fast and a 12
hour abstinence from exercise. However, in the interest of time, some
conditions may have to be modified. When performing repeated measures
of RMR, one would expect an afternoon RMR to be within 27-171 kcal/day
of morning RMR 95% of the time. Explanations for differences in RMR
depend upon which indirect calorimetry system is used, which can vary
as well. Some believe using a mouthpiece and nose clip may result in an
increased RMR and has been shown to bring about changes in tidal volume
and ventilation in healthy subjects breathing room air (10). For
individuals not accustomed to a mouthpiece and nose clip, this could
affect resting physiologic function, as anxiety and apprehension may
influence arousal levels, leading to increase in ventilation, and
ultimately RMR measurement error.
factor affecting RMR is pre- and postprandial meal
response; specifically, the diet-induced thermogenesis response to a
mix meal. In an earlier study conducted by Westrate (11), measurement
of diet -induced thermogenesis was taken for 4 hours after a meal. The
patterns of the postprandial response indicated that in men and women
with an energy content of > 1500kj can be nearly completely assessed
within 3 hours. A 4-5 hour fast may be adequate time to decrease the
effect of the thermic effect of food on RMR measurement. Therfore, size
and meal composition greatly affects the accuracy of RMR. Future
research should consider the precautions and contraindications before
assessing RMR. Following a standard protocol to minimize potential
error whenever measuring RMR is highly recommended.
Jonathan Mike, MS, CSCS, USAW, NSCA-CPT,
Doctoral Student, Assistant Editor
Roffey DM, Byrne NM, Hills AP. Day-to-day variance in measurement of
resting metabolic rate using ventilated-hood and mouthpiece &
nose-clip indirect calorimetry systems. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr.
2). Speakman JR, Selman C. Physical activity and resting metabolic rate. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Aug;62(3):621-34. Review.
McArdle, W, Katch F, Katch V. Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition
and Human Performance. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams
and Wilkins; 2001
4). Nieman DC, Trone GA, Austin MD. A new
handheld device for measuring resting metabolic rate and oxygen
consumption. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 May;103(5):588-92
JM, Irwin ML, Ainsworth BE. Estimating energy expenditure from the
Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity and Tecumseh Occupational
Activity questionnaires - a doubly labeled water validation. J Clin
Epidemiol. 2002 Apr;55(4):392-9
6). King GA, McLaughlin JE,
Howley ET, Bassett DR Jr, Ainsworth BE. Validation of Aerosport KB1-C
portable metabolic system. Int J Sports Med. 1999 Jul;20(5):304-8
Haugen HA, Melanson EL, Tran ZV, Kearney JT, Hill JO. Variability of
measured resting metabolic rate. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec;78(6):1141-5.
Adriaens MP, Schoffelen PF, Westerterp KR. Intra-individual variation
of basal metabolic rate and the influence of daily habitual physical
activity before testing. Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):419-23.
Gibbons MR, Henry CJ, Ulijaszek SJ, Lightowler HJ. Intra-individual
variation in RMR in older people. Br J Nutr. 2004 Mar;91(3):485-9.
Scott CB. Resting metabolic rate variability as influenced by
mouthpiece and noseclip practice procedures. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1993
11). Weststrate JA. Resting metabolic rate
and diet-induced thermogenesis: a methodological reappraisal. Am J Clin
Nutr. 1993 Nov;58(5):592-601.
|Opportunities Related to Exercise Physiology
|The Department of Kinesiology at the University of New Hampshire...
is currently seeking applicants for a tenure track appointment in
Exercise Science at the Assistant or Associate Professor level. ...more information...
Thank you for perusing our opinions, facts and opportunities in this edition of the ASEP-Newsletter.
American Society of Exercise Physiologists