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Issue: #8August 2010
Thank you for being part of our community. ASEP is the specific voice for (historically under-represented) Exercise Physiologists. Please use this Newsletter as a link to ASEP resources from scientific journals to professional papers, to employment and related opportunities. And be sure to click on "More On Us" at the left for the ASEP-Newsletter's parent web site.
Yours in health, 
-Lonnie Lowery and Jonathan Mike, ASEP-Newsletter Editors 
 Editor's Corner


Still Growing!


This month, due to ASEP Newsletter Editor travel, we would simply like to mention that for the first time in July, the ASEP-Newsletter surpassed 2,000 subscribers. We are very glad that Exercise Physiologists appreciate a formal connection to their field and a way to join with other exercise and wellness professionals around the world by reading the Newslwetter.
Stay tuned for future editorials, miniature literature reviews in our "Ask the EP" column, employment and other opportunities, and general news from the world of Exercise Physiology and the American Society of Exercise Physiologists.

Lonnie Lowery, PhD

ASEP-Newsletter Editor 

Ask the EP 
Q:  What are the some of the important roles of Resistance Training and Protein Synthesis?

A:   Resistance Training is a highly effective way to increase muscle protein synthesis, which result in specific metabolic and biological changes within muscle. The underlying theme of muscle anabolism (muscle building; i.e. hypertrophy) is when the rate of muscle protein synthesis exceeds protein degradation (breakdown) for an extensive period of time (Koopman 2007).Koopman also explains that following strenuous exercise, protein degradation is accelerated beyond that of protein synthesis. Consequently if food intake is deficient, total protein balance remains negative. As a result, clients and athletes should strive to consume both carbohydrates and protein following exercise (including resistance training) to achieve a positive protein balance. The relationship between exercise and nutrition is extremely important to promote adaptation and muscle anabolism to training.


Resistance Training and Protein Synthesis

            The primary adaptive response to resistance training is the increase in muscle hypertrophy, which is indicative to the load applied (i.e. weight). Phillips (2002) emphasizes that increased loading augments muscle protein synthesis and degradation and this training induced increase in protein turnover ultimately promotes protein remodeling, thus further adaptation. Previous research shows that resistance training clearly enhances muscle protein synthesis and that a single bout of resistance training elevates protein synthesis rates within 2-4 hours (3,4,5). These research studies also demonstrate additional protein synthesis rates lasting between 24-48 hours. It should be noted these increases in protein synthesis (also termed fractional synthetic rate) are primarily due to increases in myofibrillar (actin and myosin contractile proteins) rates.


The Role of Carbohydrates on Protein Synthesis

            The role of carbohydrate on muscle metabolism, specifically protein metabolism has been credited with the rise of insulin concentrations in bodily tissues. Early research shows the increased plasma insulin level to enhance net muscle protein anabolism in humans (6,7,8). However, previous research from Biolo (9) suggests that insulin should not be viewed as the major influence of muscle protein synthesis, as insulin yields only a moderate effect on muscle protein synthesis if amino acid levels are less than optimal.


Protein and Amino Acids

            Aside from providing a foundation for protein synthesis, amino acids also serve to produce certain hormones (i.e. glucagon, growth hormone, and IGF-1). In Addition, amino acids can stimulate 'nutritional signaling molecules' by regulating muscle protein metabolism, although the exact physiological mechanism(s) for this response are still unknown. More importantly, amino acids can alter mRNA translation and protein synthesis within skeletal muscle. Previous reports suggest that intake of large amounts (30-40g) of amino acids upon cessation of exercise greatly increase muscle protein synthesis.  Furthermore, smaller quantities of amino acids with and without carbohydrate have also shown to accelerate post -exercise protein synthesis and promote net protein balance (difference between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown). (10,11,12). The importance of post-exercise protein consumption is incredible valuable to optimize the anabolic response to training.





1). Koopman R, Nutritional interventions to promote post-exercise muscle protein synthesis.  Sports Med. 2007;37(10):895-906. Review.


2). Phillips SM, Parise G, Roy BD, Tipton KD, Wolfe RR, Tamopolsky MA. Resistance training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle protein turnover in the fed state.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;80(11):1045-53.


3). Chesley A, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, Smith K. Changes in human muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992 Oct;73(4):1383-8


4). MacDougall JD, Gibala MJ, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDonald JR, Interisano SA, Yarasheski KE. The time course for elevated muscle protein synthesis following heavy resistance exercise. Can J Appl Physiol. 1995 Dec;20(4):480-6.


5). Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Aarsland A, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jul;273(1 Pt 1)


6). Fryburg DA, Jahn LA, Hill SA, Oliveras DM, Barrett EJ. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism during hyperaminoacidemia by different mechanisms. J Clin Invest. 1995 Oct;96(4):1722-9


7). Gelfand RA, Barrett EJ. Effect of physiologic hyperinsulinemia on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in man. J Clin Invest. 1987 Jul;80(1):1-6


8). Hillier TA, Fryburg DA, Jahn LA, Barrett EJ. Extreme hyperinsulinemia unmasks insulin's effect to stimulate protein synthesis in the human forearm. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jun;274(6 Pt 1)


9). Biolo G, Declan Fleming RY, Wolfe RR. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal muscle.J Clin Invest. 1995 Feb;95(2):811-9


10). Børsheim E, Tipton KD, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;283(4)


11). Miller SL, Tipton KD, Chinkes DL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Independent and combined effects of amino acids and glucose after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Mar;35(3):449-55.


12). Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):386-92.



Jonathan Mike, MS, CSCS, USAW, NSCA-CPT, Doctoral Student, Assistant Editor 

Advertisements & Announcements

Opportunities Related to Exercise Physiology

Community Announcement: Iron has issued a call for brief submissions from EP students or professionals interested in getting their first involvement in legitimate Internet / pod casting settings. Opinions on professional issues or micro reviews and recent research are welcomed. Students' audio submissions (see National Public Radio (NPR]) and / or the Iron web site for examples) will be editor-reviewed by ASEP-Newsletter Editors Dr. Lonnie Lowery and Jonathan Mike. The submissions should be 300-500 word essays read aloud and recorded with Windows Sound Recorder or similar software and sent via email to Iron is not ASEP-affiliated.

The Department of Kinesiology at the University of New Hampshire... is currently seeking applicants for a tenure track appointment in Exercise Science at the Assistant or Associate Professor level. ...more information...
NOTE: ASEP Board of Directors with approval of The Center for Exercise Physiology-online developed the "EPC Petition Guidelines" for doctorate exercise physiologists to become Board Certified.

Thank you for perusing our opinions, facts and opportunities in this edition of the ASEP-Newsletter.

Lonnie Lowery
American Society of Exercise Physiologists

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